Those Who Hold Up Half Our Skies

As today, May 25th marks Africa Day, I’ve seen many posts about the heroes of this continent. As is often the case, the names that were mentioned were predominantly, if not all, male. It reminded me of being at the 8th Pan-African Congress in Accra in 2015 and feeling the same way – this sinking feeling that half the stories are not being told.

Below are my thoughts and reflections from that day, which unfortunately are still relevant.

Where are those who hold up half our skies?!
Often forgotten, without whom the sky would’ve fallen?

All morning, we heard the high-level dignitaries pay tribute to pan-Africanists. I didn’t hear one female name being mentioned. Is it that we have done nothing for this movement? Is it that our contributions are meaningless? Or is that we are invisible? That we have been removed, or were never included in the collective memory and public imagery of Pan-Africanism? For those who would ask me who those women are, the list is  by no means exhaustive, but here are a select few that I would like to acknowledge and pay tribute to:
Amy Garvey
Winnie Mandela
Graca Machel
Amina Mama
Ama Ata Aidoo
Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie
Miriam Makeba
Angelique Kidjo
Maya Angelou
Mable Dove Danquah
Taytu Betul
Adelaide Caseley-Hayford
Bibi Titi Mohamed
Fatoumatta Toure
Funmilyao Ransome Kuti
Gambo Sawaba
Muthoni Likimani
Thenjiwe Mtintso
Djamila Bouhired
Taytu Betul
Wangari Maathai
Charlotte Maxeke
Albertina Sisulu
Audley Queen Mother Moore
Louise Thompson Patterson
Thyra Edwards
Bonita Williams
Williana Burroughs
Sallye Bell Davis
Grace P. Campbell
Charlene Mitchell
Rahima Moosa
Emma Mashinini
Ruth First
Lillian Ngoyi
Sophie Williams

And countless others – often forgotten, who mobilized for Africa’s liberation, challenged
enslavement and colonization in defiance of imperialist, patriarchal culture and for a complete liberation of Africans – fighting multiple forms of oppression, domination and exploitation.

Interconnected Struggles
As Samora Machel and Thomas Sankara remind us:

Revolution & Women's Liberation
None of us are free until we are all free. This is in line with the emancipatory nature of the pan-Africanist vision. We must not buy into a hierarchy of oppressions, but rather collectively fight the multiple forms and systems of oppression and exploitation that keep us subjugated. Systems such as patriarchy which ensure women and girls are dispossessed and under siege every day, that ensure they are unsafe in their homes, streets, schools and places of work. How do we convey to them that their lives, and their dreams matter to us? That we will be their dream keepers, as Langston Hughes proposed, and will wrap their dreams and heart melodies in blue-cloud cloth and protect them from the too-rough fingers of the world?

We must recognize that ‘the struggle for Africa’s liberation and development is also a struggle for women’s liberation, gender equality and gender justice.’ Until we realize the interconnectedness and inseparability of our various struggles for justice; including gender, economic, environmental and ecological, and social justice; our movements will remain fragmented and our progress as a people will be stifled.

If we thought the task ahead of us unsurmountable, Malcolm X reminds us: “Power in defense of freedom is greater than power on behalf of tyranny and oppression, because power, real power, comes from our conviction which produces action, uncompromising action.”

Toni Morrison, in reference to another system of oppression; racism also warns us of distractions that will derail us: “The function, the very serious function of racism is distraction. It keeps you from doing your work. It keeps you from explaining, over and over again, your reason for being. Somebody says you have no language, so you spend 20 years proving that you do. Somebody says your head isn’t shaped properly, so you have scientists working on the fact that it is. Somebody says you have no art, so you dredge that up. Somebody says you have no kingdoms, so you dredge that up. None of that is
necessary. There will always be one more thing.”

Let us not get distracted.

Compassion – where is the love?

A comrade reminded me that at the heart of Pan-Africanism is love, a compassion for humanity – the ‘sympathetic apprehension of another’s suffering as intolerable’. Perhaps Che said it best when he said:

“At the risk of seeming ridiculous, let me say that the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love. It is impossible to think of a genuine revolutionary lacking this quality.”

Similarly, Malcolm X summed up his ethos towards the end of his life: “I have had enough of someone else’s propaganda. I am for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against. I am a human being, and as such, I am for whoever and whatever benefits humanity as a whole.”

May this be our politics – one in which love for one another, for humanity, for the continent, for the movement, for the earth and its inhabitants trumps our love for power, prestige and privilege.

A luta continua.

Sources and for further reading:
Pan-Africanism & the Women’s Movement (African Women’s Journal, Issue VI)
Feminism & Pan-Africanism (Feminist Africa Journal)

An African city – through a neighbor’s lens

Khartoum Exhibit Flyer - Arabic - w logo

I came to Sudan for a photography/storytelling residency as part of the East Africa Media Lab. Initially my plan was to do a follow up to an URBAMORPHOSIS series that we had begun in Addis. I came and realized however that it might not be as meaningful in the context of Khartoum as I had thought. So I struggled to answer that question. What was I doing here and what angle would this project take? What questions of socio-cultural/political importance would it interrogate, if any? How would I, as a non-Sudanese come and add value to a space that had a rich array of storytellers and documenters capturing everyday Khartoum? I felt stuck and anxious.

On one hand, I argued with myself that as a pan-Africanist, this was my city too. I should feel home in any African country. On the other hand, I couldn’t be audacious enough to believe that I could capture and investigate as I had done with Addis. My reference points – cultural, historical, social, economic and political were nowhere near the same and I was just beginning to learn about everything. I soaked in all the tales and viewpoints that were offered to me, making a mental note to cross-check ‘historical’ references to see if they corroborated or contradicted what I was hearing. I asked many that I met endless questions about this city.

I got a range of responses but most were nostalgic references to a more beautiful, clean, green Khartoum that had character and class. Most seemed to want to return to this time and place before the current regime assumed power and war followed, ravaging the country and leaving it split into more than two pieces. Crippled under sanctions that has frustrated but not prevented people from moving forward.

As this residency comes to a close, I will leave with a deeper appreciation for this country and its people who have endured decades of civil war, a separation of their own and yet still manage to maintain a level of warmth and hospitality that is unmatched anywhere in this world.

What I settled on was a story told through my viewpoint  – Khartoum – through the lens of a neighbor. If you are in Khartoum, make sure to come out and experience this one day exhibit that will be taking place at Impact Hub Khartoum on 117 Street in Riyadh from 2-10PM. See you there.

Khartoum Exhibit Flyer - w logo

My FEMNET journey – Six Years Ago Today

BBOG - NebsSix years ago today, April 18, 2011, was my first day of work at the FEMNET Secretariat. New city, new position, new challenge. Little did I know that my four plus years would mean I would criss-cross the earth, deepen (and question) my pan-African and feminist politics, be an active participant in game-changing global, continental and regional policy making processes, lead campaigns and take to the streets (on numerous occasions), be in the same spaces with presidents, movers and shakers, incredible and passionate activists and idealists who put everything on the line to make sure the earth would be better than the way they found it.

We made magic happen, with sisters (and brothers) from across Africa and across the globe, and for those experiences and more, for working with colleagues who became family, for being allowed to build wings and fly, to innovate and renovate, to imagine and deliver, to be challenged and to grow exponentially, both professionally and personally, I am forever grateful.

My FEMNET journey will always be a part of my story, and all of you characters who populate it. Thank you for fighting the good fight, for your love, your warmth, your passion, your courage, your persistence and so much more. I miss you, on a day like today and on many days.

Mad [Wo]men

banksy - keep your coins

“You cannot carry out fundamental change without a certain amount of madness.
In this case, it comes from nonconformity,
the courage to turn your back on the old formulas,
the courage to invent the future.

It took the mad [wo]men of yesterday for us to be able to act with clarity today.
I want to be one of those madmen.
We must dare to invest in the future.”
-Thomas Sankara

And I want to be one of those mad women.



She asked me,
What is this thing called Pan-Africanism?
Who is Pan-Africanism?
Is he/she/it still alive?

I didn’t have the answers for her.
In fact, I had more questions.

Was it a he/she/it?
Was it a baby waiting to be nurtured?
An elder who’d passed on without passing anything on?
Had it left behind any heirs to take up what it had started?

I didn’t know because all the seats
Where such conversations took place seemed
(Pre)occupied by men of another generation
They told me what they thought I should know
The rest, apparently didn’t concern me

But I was having trouble digesting what I’d been fed
I wanted to live Pan-Africanism
Breathe it, grow it, build it, share it
So that I may know it as intimately as they seemed to

Is it the United States of Africa?
Seamless borders
One people?

Is it that pain in my right
That I feel as strongly in my left?
Is it her hunger that gnaws equally at me?
His thirst that I can’t seem to quench for myself?
Is it blood beyond kin?
Is it where I dry the tears you cry?

Is it decisions made that transcend time and space?

Is it evolution or revolution?
Freedom or regulation?
A struggle or a celebration?

Is it Lumumba, Selassie, Fanon or Sankara?
Or Cisse, Mongella, Neto, the female Mandela’s, Machel’s, Nkrumah’s?
Often forgotten, without whom the sky would’ve fallen

Is it anti-imperialist, anti-capitalist, anti-establishment?
Authoritarian or totalitarian?
My way or no way?
Or there is no one way but let’s discover what is way?

Is it truth?

Is it a place where none is too good for the other?
Or a place where we’re too busy being better?

Where your fears become mine
As do your sorrows
So we fight them together

Where the tears cried or withheld
By the river in the South ail me in the North
Because our veins through which it runs are inseparable
And so are our dreams
Our aspirations
And our deepest hopes

Where the death and demise
Of one is that of all
As is victory

Where the sum of all is the sum of one

What are the qualifications?
Is there a cut off age/bracket?
Is it a reserve for the literati?

Must one speak African?
Converse in Afro-speak?
Be blessed with a particular accent?
Is it a matter of attire—
“Where are your African clothes!?”
A hairdo or a hairdid?
A birthrite or a birthplace?

Is it a theory, an ideal?
A panacea, a place to aspire to?

Is it a was, is, or will be?

Is it even an ism?

©copyright, Nebila Abdulmelik, May 2013

The Professional and the Personal: Reflecting on 5 years since my introduction to the African Union

By Semiha Abdulmelik

It is an interesting time for Africa and African institutions, from a changing international and regional socio-political and economic landscape to internal changes within the continent. Institutionally speaking, the 50th anniversary of the Organization for African Unity is fast approaching and the 10th anniversary of its successor, the African Union has just passed. The analysis, stocktaking, and assessments of the AU from its entirety to specific organs and programs started early-from the polemic to the scholarly, the optimistic to the dismissive, from insiders to the distant observer. The theme for 2013’s bi-annual AU Summits, Pan-Africanism and African Renaissance, holds potential for timely and interesting deliberations, however challenging it may be to make any serious, decisive, and concrete decisions on the basis of those deliberations. From the writer’s perspective, 2013 also marks approximately 5 years since I was introduced to, and started engaging and exploring the African Union space (although not continuously, and mostly from an INGO and LNGO perspective). Although most of my work has been policy oriented, I wanted to focus rather on some of my general personal-professional reflections (some or most of which are framed in the form of questions and do not present themselves as necessarily discrete or mutually exclusive).

Between the personal and the professional
We hold a multitude of identities today (even if we stick closer to ‘home’): as Africans, citizens of our respective states and regions, employees, practioners of a particular field or profession, etc. Perhaps one of the biggest tensions or balancing acts for some of us working in the more ‘formalized’ Pan-African space and institutions is the degree to which we bring our personal identities to bear on our professional ones. For instance, how do we move beyond the dangerous and misleading dichotomy between activist and technocrat/expert? How can we (and do we) work outside the confines, constrictions, and organizational priorities that we face as professionals? How do we conversely push the boundaries within our organizational spaces to make them more progressive? As Pan-Africa(n) practioners, what responsibilities do we have beyond the merely professional? This is certainly not a new challenge, and many have managed this tension in various ways. However, this is trickier for the newer generation of professionals who did not, like some of their older counterparts, start out as activists who have now moved on to mainstream organizations, but are trying to find their own path. The use of social media (not just in an organizational capacity, but in a personal one) is one example of how this medium is allowing us to take our work further and deeper.

Whose dream was deferred?
Earlier in the year, T. Mbeki cleverly invoked the profound question-what happens to a dream deferred?-from L. Hughes’s poem, Dream Deferred, as the opening to his assessment of the AU on its 10th anniversary. However, the bigger question may have been whose dream was deferred? The creation and development of the AU was and continues to arguably be an elite exercise-without disregard to some of its progressive principles. Is the AU then an institution for the people (at least in principle), created and maintained without the people? How are we to take seriously a new branding campaign by the AU which proclaims: I am African, I am the African Union? What efforts are being made at the national/local level and through its various liaison offices and special representatives to engage more meaningfully and in a sustained manner with African citizens? As members of formal civil society (African or international NGOs), how are we using our relatively privileged engagement and access to the AU to do outreach to ordinary citizens? And while we may have this advantage, we are certainly not the real source of accountability pressure. Indeed if we are really looking at some of the most powerful movements for change across the continent, such as Occupy Nigeria, NGOs had a very limited role to play, particularly initially. We must then remember that this Task does not (just) rest on our heads; those that carry this Project that is a better Africa for all, either consciously or unconsciously, are many, and do not need or deserve our patronizing attitudes and support. There is then a need to understand and value the different forms of organization and engagement at the various levels, as well as understanding the role and limitations of each. Even within the NGO sector, the diversity of thematic/policy engagements and targets (from the AU Commission to the ACtHPR to the RECs), means that we are working on various pieces of this puzzle. We must continue (start?) to engage better across these different communities, and in a spirit of solidarity and dialogue, understand and work towards the totality. Given this diversity, the task then becomes how do we define our collective dream-albeit amidst the current and evolving realities?

Interrogating the intended and unintended consequences of our engagement
While there is clearly more momentum currently around NGO engagement with the AU (both in terms of sheer numbers and range/depth) and its various organs and programs, there is a rich history of NGO involvement in its various aspects. As a collective community, we need to flesh out the progress and learning over the past couple of years. How have we engaged to strengthen or otherwise the institution? How have we created and occupied space? Which communities have we engaged, and which ones have we ignored or alienated with our discourse and ways of working? In which ways have we engaged with both decision-makers and policy-makers that have built bridges, coherence, and normative progress? Has our need for immediate wins and gains translated into long-term change-and if not, how do we change our approaches and attitudes? Just as we turn the critical gaze towards the AU, should too should the gaze follow us. A self-reflexive and Do No Harm approach should inform our engagement.

Oscillating between optimism and pessimism
Anyone engaging with the African Union, either in an academic, practioner, or other capacity, will undoubtedly at one time or another fall into the optimist, pessimist, or even indifferent camps about the continental institution. We need to accept that as an institution, the AU will always be teetering between change and continuity-although it is perhaps realistic to assume that we are unlikely to see a sharp break from the past-especially in the short to medium term. However, we need to keep our attention on where the actual and potential shifts are across the Union-particularly with regards to practice and agenda setting. Which organs are ‘performing’? Why? Can these high (er) performers set into motion a kind of isomorphism across the Union? Under what conditions? We also need to be open but cautious in the much-touted sharing/exchanging of experiences with other supra-national bodies like the EU and ASEAN. While there are many lessons to be learnt, we need to devote greater energies on understanding our own realities and context – and how wider international dynamics affect these and our attempts at bringing about change. While African solutions to African problems can hardly be said to be problem-free, there is enough practice to interrogate and build on. From a different perspective, there is some danger and lack of realism in expecting the AU to be everything and nothing simultaneously-perhaps where some of the criticism is stemming from. The AU is merely one formal manifestation of the Pan-Africa (n)(ism) project. Where is the AU best placed in this process-where is its distinctive advantage? Regardless of the range of analysis and sentiment around the AU, it is clear that there is need for continued constructive criticism and engagement. This should not deter us from questioning some of the assumptions that sometimes appear to be fixed realities. We should be brave enough to talk honestly about what should be salvaged, what discarded, and what reformulated. How large or compact should (an effective) AU be? Can we interrogate the ideal form and function for an evolving AU? Does the strategic planning process underway at the moment for the AU provide opportunities for this?

Reviving, redefining, or revamping Pan-Africanism?
There are three related issues, in my mind, to explore as we move to 2013, with its stated theme of Pan-Africanism and African Renaissance for the two AU Summits. Firstly, what does Pan-Africanism mean for the younger generation of Africans who were not part of the ‘liberation generation’? How do we ensure relevance and ownership? What does it mean in light of Africa’s current realities and position globally? Pan-Africanism cannot and shouldn’t be a static concept-it should be open to a constant process of definition and redefinition-particularly by those who have the greatest stake in it. Secondly, like the ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ division in Politics and International Relations, we need to ensure that the discussion on Pan-Africanism and African Renaissance is not relegated to side meetings and divorced from concrete applications. Discussions need to further interrogate how the ‘softer’ identity and cultural aspects of African unity can be brought to bear or inform the more technical programs and applications of the AU. For example, the African Solidarity Initiative, a technical assistance program around post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation is grounded in the notion of ‘Africans Helping Africans’ and Pan-African solidarity. Lastly, I hope and believe that this conversation should centre not on finding clear defined similarities, or fixating on creating lists of values and principles, but understanding the multiple and complicated ways in which like network theory would suggest, we are connected and interdependent in a complex web of cultural, economic, and socio-political ties, whether located near or far.

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